Governance, Politics and Public Policy
|Korel Göymen||Sabancı Üniversitesi||PUBL501/POLS431||Fall/2012-2013|
Public policymaking in democratic societies is a multi-dimensional and complex process. There is constant interaction between the government, bureaucracy and a multitude of organizations and entities in the polity, sometimes leading to sensible, clear, understandable and applicable policies, or, probably just as frequently, to muddled, incoherent, contradictory ones, or no action at all. Public policymaking is a response to a set of challenges (arising out of demands for various services by citizens; economic, social, political, environmental problems; and other local, regional, national, supranational, and international needs and priorities) and state/government failures (poverty, deprivation, patronage, populism, nepotism, clientelism, favoritism, corruption, etc.). Policy process requires choosing among goals and alternatives. So, “it is a purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors in dealing with a problem or matter of concern...Public policies emerge in response to policy demands, or those claims for action or inaction on some public issue, made by other actors, private citizens, group representatives, or other public officials and agencies” (James Anderson, Public Policymaking, 1994).
Public policymaking involves a sequential pattern of activities leading to the formulation, implementation and evaluation/ analysis of policies. Although not all steps are distinguishable in all cases, the following stages of the process are frequently observed, sometimes concurrently.
1. Problem/ issue identification and agenda setting
2. Formulating policy alternatives
3. Policy adaption and legitimization
4. Implementing public policy
5. Evaluating/ analyzing public policy
In the course, an attempt will be made to link certain basic concepts in political science and public administration to the public policymaking process. Governance as a key concept will be dealt with in demystifying the relations among various actors involved in the policy process. The course will be concluded with discussions related to the appropriate mechanisms, tools, and levels of public policymaking to render results to constitute effective responses to needs and challenges.
Learning Outcomes of the Course
By the end of the Course, students should be able to:
1) Interrelate politics, administration, polity and policy
2) Appreciate the multi-faceted nature of the policy process
3) Comprehend the reasons for state/government failure
4) Critically assess the responses to state/government failure
5) Have a clear understanding of the governance approach in the policy process
6) Distinguish and interrelate the various stages related to the policy process
7) Apply the policy framework developed during the course to various cases, in different policy areas
Students are required to attend regularly, do the assigned readings before coming to class and participate in classroom discussions. They will be expected to submit an extensive term paper, related to a policy area, at the end of the term, which will constitute the main basis for course evaluation. Additionally, they will be expected to submit brief take-home discussion exercises sporadically.
I. Relating Policy to Politics
- (Anderson, 6-31; Birkland, 3-24; Hodgson/ Irving 21-36; Considine, 8-25; Howlett et al, 4-14; Oxford Handbook, 3-28; Handbook of Public Policy, 31-47).
- Definitions of Public Policy
- Approaches to Public Policy (Anderson, 18-29). Political Systems Theory / Group Theory / Elite Theory / Institutionalism
- Selected Public Policy Theories and Models (Sabatier, 3-35, 293-320; Birkland, 214-232; Anderson, 18-31; H. Bochel/ S. Duncan, 1-46, 47-147).
- Stages Theory/Policy Cycle/Stages Heuristic (Hudson / Lowe, 6-7, 264-5, 288-9; Sabatier; 6-7; Bochel / Duncan, 2-3; Birkland, 224-5).
- Rational Choice Theory (social / public choice / formal theory) (Anderson, 23-7; Sabatier, 21-53; Hudson / Lowe, 221-41; Howlett et al, 142-6; Birkland, 14-7, 216-9; Bochel / Duncan, 150-1).
- Incrementalism (disjointed), (Anderson, 129-31; Sabatier, 164-5; Howlett et al, 143-6, 146-9; Birkland, 216-18; Bochel / Duncan, 3-4).
- Punctuated – Equilibrium Model (Approach) (Sabatier, 155-180; Howlett et al, 207-8; Birkland, 228-9).
- The Advocacy Coalition (Sabatier, 189-210; Birkland, 13-4; Howlett et al, 83; Anderson, 73-4; Hudson / Lowe, 254).
- Multiple Streams Metaphor (Anderson, 92-6; Howlett et al, 103-8).
- The Garbage Can Model (Howlett et al, 151-3; Birkland, 218-9).
II.Relating Governance to Policy
- Governance and Government (Pierre / Peters, 2-7).
- Reasons for Increasing Relevance of Governance (Pierre / Peters, 50-69).
- Complexities of Global Challenges
- The Financial Crisis of the State
- Failure of the State (poverty / deprivation; patronage / clientelism; nepotism / favouritism; corruption)
- The Ideological Shift Towards the Market
- Emergence of the New Public Management
- New Types and Levels of Governance
- Different Approaches to Governance (Pierre / Peters, 14-23) as hierarchy / as process / as markets / as networks / as communities
- Impact of Governance on Turkish Public Administration and Politics
III.Policy Makers and the Policy Environment
- (Anderson, 40-69, 126-152; Howlett et al, 50-89; Considine, 51-70, 84-122; Birkland, 52-107; Oxford Handbook, 543-586).
- The External Factors
- Globalization / Global Governance / Global Trends and Values / Constraints of Regional Integration (e.g. The European Union)
- Political Culture and Political Environment
- Socio-economic Environment
- Structural (Constitutional / Institutional) Environment
- Administrative Culture
- Official Policy Makers (Legislative, Executive, Judiciary, Bureaucracy, Autonomous Bodies)
- Non-governmental Actors (Interest Groups, Political Parties, Media, Think-Tanks and Research Organizations, Civil Society, the Citizen)
IV.Agenda Setting and the Policy Formulation Proces
- (Birkland, 108-137; Anderson, 83-112; Howlett et al, 92-109; Oxford Handbook, 228-249).
- Actors and power in the policy process
- Policy Problems
- The Policy Agenda and Agenda Setting
- Agenda Denial and Non-decision
- Loss of Agenda Status
V.Policy Types, Policy Design and Tools (Instruments)
- (Birkland, 138-180; Howlett et al, 110-138; Handbook of Public Policy, 75-96).
- Policy Types: Distributive, Regulatory, Redistributive, Material, Symbolic
- Elements of Policy Design (goals, choice of model, tools, targets, implementation)
- Types of policy tools (instruments) Authority-based / treasure-based / organization-based / information-based
VI.Policy Implementation and Policy Failure
- (Birkland, 180-199; Anderson, 216-239; Hudson / Lowe, 243-261; Howlett et al, 160-177; Handbook of Public Policy, 151-166; Tayfur / Göymen).
- Approaches to the Study of Implementation. Top-down / bottom-up / the synthesis
- Who Implements Policy?
- Administrative (bureaucratic) politics
- Policy failure and Learning from it
VII.Policy Impact and Evaluation
- (Anderson, 271-292; Hudson / Lowe, 263-286; Howlett et al, 178-195; Bochel / Duncan, 169-190; Oxford Handbook, 319-335).
- The Politics of Policy Evaluation
- Actors in the Policy Evaluation Process
- Types of Policy Evaluation. Administrative / Judicial / Political
- Problems in Policy Evaluation
- Outcomes of Policy Evaluation
- Policy Feedback / Policy Termination
Selected Sources List
- Aksoy, Şinasi, Polatoğlu, Aykut., “Turkish Administrative System: Concepts and Issues”, in Comparative Bureaucratic Systems, K.K. Tummala (ed.) New York: Lexington Books, 2003, 435-460.
- Anderson, James E., Public Policymaking, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2010.
- Ansay, Tuğrul, Wallace, Don., Introduction to Turkish Law, Turhan Kitabevi, Ankara, 2006.
- Bache, Ian and Flinders, Mathew (eds.), Multi-Level Governance, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
- Bache, Ian, Europeanization and Multilevel Governance, Plymouth, U.K: Rowman& Littlefield Publisher, 2008.
- Birkland, A. Thomas, An Introduction to the Policy Process; Theories, Concepts, and Models of Public Policy making, Armonk, 2005.
- Bochel, Hugh and Duncan Sue., Making Policy in Theory and Practice, Bristol: The Policy Press, 2007
- Considine, Mark, Making Public Policy, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005.
- Çelenk, A. Aslıhan., “Europanization and Administrative Reform: The Case of Turkey”, Mediterranean Politics, Vol.14, No.1, 2009, 41-60.
- Dunn, William N., Public Policy Analysis, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2004.
- Eraydın, A; Armatlı, B; Erkuş, H; Yaşar, S., “Network of Governance for Competitiveness: The Role of Policy Networks in the Economic Performance of Settlements in the İzmir Region”, Urban Studies, Vol. 45, No. 11, 2291-2321.
- Fischer, Frank; Miller, J. Gerald; Sidney, S. Marc (eds.), Handbook of Public Policy Analysis, London: CRC Press, 2006.
- Fischer, Frank, Reframing Public Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
- Goss, Sue, Making Local Governance Work, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.
- Göymen, Korel., “Dynamics of Changes in Turkish Local Governance”, Society and Economics, 28 (2006), 245-266.
- Göymen, Korel., “The Second Tier of Local Government in Turkey”, in The Second Tier of Local Government in Europe (H. Heinelt, et. al. eds.), Routledge, 2011, pp. 289 – 307.
- Gummett, Philip (et. al. eds.), Globalization and Public Policy, Cheltenhem, U.K: Brookfield, 1996.
- Gül, S.K., “Power and Power Relationships in the Public Policy Making Process”, Turkish Public Administration Annual, 32-35, 2006-2009, 1-15.
- Heinelt, Hubert and Knodt, Michéle (eds.), Policies within the EU Multi-Level System, Baden Baden: Nomos, 2011.
- Hill, Michael and Huge, Peter, Implementing Public Policy: Governance in Theory and Practice, London: Sage, 2002.
- Hodgson, M. Susan and Irving, Zoe, Policy Reconsidered, Bristol: The Policy Press, 2007.
- Howlett, Michael, et. al., Studying Public Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
- Hveem, Helge; Nordhang, Kristen (eds).,Public Policy in the Age of Globalization, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
- Kennett, Patricia, Governance, Globalization and Public Policy, Cheltenham; Edward Elgar, 2008.
- Lowe, J. Hudson, Understanding the Policy Process, Bristol: Polity Press, 2004.
- Maron, Michael; Rein, Martin; Goodin, E. Robert (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Public Policy, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- Martin, Reiner, The Regional Dimension of Public Policy, Basinstoke: Macmillan, 1989.
- Peters, B. Guy and van Nirgen, K. M. Frms, Public Policy Instruments: Evaluating the Tools of Public Administration, Cheltenhem, U.K, 1998.
- Peters, B. Pierre, Governance, Politics and the State, New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.
- Peters, B. Guy and Pierre, Jon (eds.), Handbook of Public Policy, London: Sage Publications, 2006.
- Reinicke, Wolfgang, Global Public Policy: Governing without Government? Washington D.C: Brookings Press, 1998.
- Rhodes, R., Understanding Governance, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1997.
- Robins, Philip, “Public Policy Making in Turkey: Faltering Attempts to Generate a National Drugs Policy”, Policy and Politics, Vol.37 No.2, 289-306.
- Sabatier, A. Paul (ed.), Theories of the Policy Process, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2007.
- Shai, Dharam, Social Development and Public Policy, New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.
- Tayfur, Fatih and Göymen, Korel, “Decision-Making in Turkish Foreign Policy: The Caspian Oil Pipelines Issue”, in Middle Eastern Studies, Vol.38, No.2, April, 2002, 101-122.
- Ulusoy, Kıvanç, “Saving the State Again: Turks Face the Challenge of European Governance”, Center for European Studies, METU, 2006, 1-23.